The human body has a wide distribution of nerves that work together to form the nervous system. Nerve impulses have a close relationship with conduction. Past experiments did not use conduction because the scientists thought it was dangerous to experiment with electricity. Three mm of cocaine added to a ringer solution and electricity passed through it. The reaction of the solution is the same as the reaction of the human body has when passed through mild electricity.
Studies show that Saltatory conduction is an impulse of the nerve. What does it do? It permits action potentials to travel rapidly and efficiently. This conduction takes place in the human body, in the myelin nerve fibers to be precise. The name originates from the French word saltare which loosely translates to leap. Energy efficiency improves in the nervous system by saltation.
An action potential is an electric impulse which is neuron and muscle cell signals. An action potential moves and causes the electrical signal leap from one segment to the next one, instead of traveling the full length of the nerve.
A myelin is a white substance whose composition is lipids and proteins. It is produced by the central nervous system. The myelin acts as an insulator during saltation. Since, it acts as an insulator it ensures that electric charges do not leak via the axon membrane. Action potentials freely travel through the nerve fibers. Since, electrical impulses are unable to pass through the covered parts of an axon the current leaps to the adjacent node as well as cause another action potential.
Saltatory conduction has its many advantages. One advantage is the increase of velocity which is faster by 30 times than continuous conduction. When limited electrical currents conduct small amounts of ions leak through the membranes, as well as this conserves metabolic energy. This is good because the human body utilizes an average of 30 % of metabolic energy. Aside from humans invertebrates like the earth worm as well as the shrimp experience this saltatory conduction.
When the action potentials hop from one node to another, they travel at an increased velocity which assures that the diameter of an axon is not increased. Facts show that a mechanical injury on an anesthetized region stops the nerve conduction in the area. Also, applying an anesthetic solution to the myelin part of a nerve fiber does not alter the energy level of the fiber.